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4. Observing of RVR

Observing of RVR a. RVR observations must be representative of the touch down zone and, as may be selected by the authority concerned, of the middle and far sections of the runway. b. RVR observations should be made on all runways intended for use during periods of reduced visibility and in particular on: – Precision […]

3. Observing Techniques of RVR

Observing Techniques of RVR Three techniques for observing runway visual range (RVR) are currently in use: a. Transmissometer The transparency of the atmosphere is measured in terms of the transmission factor over a horizontal distance between a light projector and a photo-sensitive receiver. The transmission factor is converted to RVR taking into account the characteristics […]

2. Visual Range

Visual Range The purpose of providing runway visual range (RVR) information is to permit pilots to appraise aerodrome visibility conditions and in particular to determine whether these conditions are above or below established aerodrome operating minima. RVR is defined as the range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line of a […]

1. Horizontal Visibility Aspects

Horizontal Visibility Aspects Horizontal visibility is defined as the maximum distance up to which prominent objects on the earth’s surface can be seen and identified by day and prominent lighted objects of a given brightness, on the earth’s surface, can be seen by night. Horizontal visibility may be estimated by observing suitable objects or lights […]


Visibility Visibility and Visual Range Notwithstanding modern developments in ’All weather operations’, ’visibility’ and ’visual range’ remain factors of importance in aircraft operations. Source: FCRG

Rejected Take-Off

Rejected Take-Off 1. General DEFINITION: A take-off that is discontinued after take-off thrust is set and initiation of the take-off roll has begun. The Rejected Take-Off (RTO) is a maneuver performed during the take-off roll if the flight crew determines that the take-off should not be continued. Most RTOs (approximately 95%) are initiated at speeds […]


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Training Aids

This section contains PDFs and links. The Daily ATPL – ATPL questions Online training courses – FAA Pilot Training – FAA Morse Code Practice – AA9PW JAA Training Organisation Civil Aviation Safety Authority – Multi-Crew Pilot Licence (MPL) Multi Crew Pilot License (MPL) Training – IATA Airplane Upset Recovery Training Aid PDF Airplane Upset Recovery […]

13. Exchange of communications Exchange of communications Communications shall be concise and unambiguous, using standard phraseology whenever available. Recommendation. Abbreviated procedures should only be used after initial contact has been established and where no confusion is likely to arise. Acknowledgement of receipt. The receiving operator shall make certain that the message has been received correctly before […]